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  Astrology and Religions of Indians of America

  Indians of North America

   Astrological doctrines were known in America even long before opening of the New World by Europeans.
   On plains of North America a huge number of archaeological monuments in the form of stone circles at tops of hills is revealed. The greatest age has a Majorville Cairn and Medicine Wheel, Canada. It has been built about 3200 BCE and is a contemporary of the Egyptian pyramids. Some of circles, certainly, make astronomical and astrological sense. Big Horn, one of the most important monuments of this type, is on the mountain Medicine in the State of Wyoming (USA). Therefore probably stone circles have received the unexpected name of "medical circles". However, everything could be on the contrary. The European word medicine at Indians meant also "magic", and the mountain began to be called Medicine because of sorcery of a stone circle.
   Big Horn represents big group of stones which leaves "beams" of average on 12 m. On the ends them the stone circle is carried out. Outside, on the end of each of six beams, stone heaps are filled less, and five of them concern a circle, and the sixth, southwest, is located on the end of the beam which is going beyond a circle as "avenue" of Stonehenge. The direction from it on the center of a circle coincides with the direction of sunrise in day of a summer solstice. Three more directions of beams can be connected with stars is risings of the Aldebaran, Riegel and Sirius. Point of observation in all cases same - a northwest heap of stones, and as "front sight" serve two east and central heaps.
   Around 1500 BC. the heliacic rising of Aldebaran occurred near the date of the summer solstice and could be used for several centuries as an additional event preceding the solstice and confirming it. The other two stars had heliacal sunrises in this sequence: Rigel 28 days after Aldebaran, and Sirius 28 days after Rigel. Real some magic of figures, especially if to consider that is incomplete 28 days time of a lunar way on all Zodiac.
   It is possible to assume that circles were under construction for the calendar and ritual purposes. "Medical circles" of North America show that for its inhabitants the summer solstice served as the beginning of year.
   A more detailed picture of the development in North America of the science of the stars is difficult to reconstruct due to the lack of written sources. Particular data can be received from myths of various Indian tribes.
   It is characteristic that among tribes of Indians of North America the wide spread occurance gained an impression about four parts of the world, four elements corresponding to symbolics of color, various objects and natural phenomena. The set of four parts of the world is a symbol of completeness and unity of the world, it is intimately bound to the idea of recurrence of all environmental. The similarity of these representations to astrological and physiophilosophical concepts of the Old World is just amazing.

  Indians of South America

   Among the South American myths about the origin of the heavenly bodies, those whose heroes are the Sun and the Moon stand out. They are considered as brothers (more rare - the brother and the sister) or married couple. In the latter case the Sun - usually the man. The myth about a love triangle between the Sun, the Moon and some third character (a bird, the daughter of the Sun) is distributed, and according to one version of the Moon appears as a woman, according to others (in the same mythology) - as a man. In the latter case the smaller brightness of the Moon is explained by its defeat in fight against the Sun. At Botocudos the complete Moon - the man, defective - the woman.
   The South American myths explaining origin of spots on the Moon are extremely various. Most often there is a version according to which the Moon-man descends to his beloved on earth, and the one, to find out with whom she meets, smears his face with soot. In other cases in spots see a silhouette of the being living on the Moon. At Toba people the Moon - the man with thin skin through which illuminate entrails. In the myth of tribes of Ona people, the Sun beats the Moon, and the scars remain on her body. The movement of the Sun and the Moon on the sky is considered as continuation of their terrestrial way (at Quechua), as the pursuit of one heavenly body by another (at Ona people). The eclipse is explained with attack on heavenly body of a heavenly monster, most often a jaguar (at Toba people, guarani), or fight between the Sun and the Moon which wins one, other party (at a Yukuna, Jivaroan peoples, Botocudos). The majority of Indian tribes has myths about the brightest stars and constellations. The special attention of Indians of South America was drawn by Pleiades and the Belt of Orion. On the whole stars are considered as the people who have got on the sky before his communication with the earth , souls of the people who have died during accident (at Mapuche), the women who are going down on the Earth to have an affaire with people (at Toba people, Carajás) has torn. The star mythology at tribes of Gran Chaco is especially developed. Myths about two brothers heroes who, having made a number of feats, turn at the end of the narration into the Sun, the Moon or stars are very popular.
   Many tribes of South America have an idea of the Supreme deity. Sometimes (guarani, apinagé) it is god who is perceived as the old Sun, unlike the son, the new Sun.

  Caranqui's culture

   Archaeological monuments, similar to North American, are known also in the territory of South America. So, in 40 km from the capital of Ecuador of Quito, in the area of Cochasqui, the complex from 15 truncated pyramids of various heights and the areas is located. They were under construction at different times and belonged, apparently, to the culture of Caranqui which has arisen apprx. 800 BC, in 700 - 1200 has reached blossoming, and has disappeared in two centuries.Cochasqui's pyramids Wide platforms on pyramids were probably used for religious practices. Long time flat ramps which conduct to the top platforms of nine pyramids seemed unclear. However it has become clear that they make a certain astronomical sense. All ramps approach pyramids from the northeast, and the biggest of them reaches in length of 300 m. Calculations have shown that in this direction it was possible to see rising of the star located on the end of a tail of Big Dipper several centuries ago. The star which we call Alkaid ascends the last from seven stars, and it means that all ladle of Big Dipper flaunts in a sky. Observing rising on the line of the artificial horizon formed by edge of a pyramid it is much easier to record the moment of emergence of a star, and, the most important, doesn't influence him "the angle of attenuation". Usually stars can be distinguished only at the heights more than 6-8 ° over the horizon. Here the star appears at the height of 10° at once. Ramps of all pyramids have such almost identical tilt angle. In the ancient time heliacic rising of Alkaid occurred at the end of October - the beginning of November that coincided with approach of a rainy season and the beginning of agricultural year. This season in a tropical zone, as a rule, comes suddenly and violently, threatening to take unawares farmers. Therefore to Cochasqui's inhabitants astronomical methods of prevention of elements were so important.


   Inca lived in the mountainous regions of Peru, Chile and Ecuador in 12th - the beginning of the 16th centuries.
   Inca considered the most important object on the heavenly sphere the Milky Way - the Maya (Heavenly River). On it, on their representations, are located all more or less significant objects of a firmament. The Heavenly River proceeded on the earth in the form of Vilcanota - the terrestrial river flowing near the capital of Incas, the city of Cuzco.
   On the Milky Way the Incas allocated not so much constellations how many a spot of interstellar dust - the coal bags which are seen on it dark silhouettes. These "black constellations" carry names of animals. Rising over the horizon, they kind of pursue each other. And here the ecliptic and the related Zodiac, probably, were not known to ancient Peruvian astrologers.
   The sun was the main subject to worship of Inca: with him the Supreme governor of their state - Sapa Inca was personified.
   In ancient Cusco on a crest of the mountain there were stone columns later destroyed by conquistadors. Them was 8 or maybe even 16. One half towered over western, and other half - over east part of the city. On these columns, observing from the main temple of the city, priests observed points of rising and sunset in days of an equinox and solstice.
   Inca had one more type of "observatories" - Intiuatana, i.e. "the place where the Sun is attached", "the solar mooring". Intiuatanas were cut in rocks. In the middle of "mooring" the stone column - a gnomon settled down. It was possible to determine by his shadow, "what time is it". Twice in a year (when the Sun appeared at noon precisely in a zenith) this column didn't cast a shadow at all and could serve as a peculiar calendar.
   In addition to 12 months for 30 days a year, the Incas had 5 more (and in leap years - 6) the final days allocated for the holidays.
   The astrological and astronomical system of ancient Peruvians to the creators didn't serve worse than astronomy of the Maya or Babylonians. As well as everywhere in the ancient time, it determined, for example, terms of field works. Time of their beginning and end was specified by priests to within day. And the major agricultural works there were not less than 18 types here (!). They proceeded from one and a half-two weeks to two and a half months and covered the whole year. Unfortunately, we have much more poor and fragmentary data about astrology of Inca, than about astrological concepts of Mesoamerica.

Indians of Mesoamerica

   Mesoamerica is called the territory of modern Mexico and the North of Central America. During an era of the preclassical period (apprx. 600 BC) the carving on a stone made by Olmec artists gives the grounds to claim that key signature of the Mesoamerican astrology were used already then. During the classical period which has been time of blossoming and decline of a civilization of the Maya (apprx. 300 - apprx. 900 AD) astrology becomes the adviser and the guideline in religion, war and everyday life. Ancient astrologers of the Maya had both the high status, and the real power in society; therefore they had an opportunity to develop a set of difficult methods of calculation of planetary and calendar positions. During the post-classical period when the civilization of the Maya endured decline and in the Mexican plateaus Toltecs, and later Aztecs dominated, the astrological tradition was carried on and blossomed, though hasn't developed up to the heights big, than in the classical period. But the Spaniards who have arrived to Mesoamerica at the beginning of the 16th century have quickly put an end to more than two-thousand-year history of development of local culture.
   In spite of the fact that the Spanish conquistadors and priests with big assiduity burned books by Indians and destroyed inscriptions on a stone, the astrological tradition hasn't died. Since the Spanish gain and till present time the oral tradition has kept some of the most important principles of astrological system of ancient Indians. In the attempts to study local practicians in the best way to eradicate them, Christian preachers left records about ancient astrology. The modern archaeoastronomers studying ancient ruins by means of precision instruments and tools have found a set of certificates that here vising of astronomical phenomena through several points was carried out. It shows importance of the heavenly phenomena for the ancient people living here. The astrological tradition in Mesoamerica was the central core of several civilizations which have arisen in this region, and modern researchers systematized the remained data - at least, sufficiently, to estimate it high level of complexity.
   In Mesoamerica not only individual, but also mundane astrology was developed. It operated with time intervals lasting 7200 days (that is close to duration of a cycle of Jupiter-Saturn) called "K'atun". K'atun was considered by the Maya as a fundamental unit of measure in political and cultural affairs. K'atuns united in groups on 13 and 20; 260 K'atuns made a creation era. As Maya were great mathematicians and left a set of dates imprinted on a stone, it is absolutely precisely known that the current era has begun on August 11 3113 BC and will end on December 21, 2112. The period in 5125 years (260 K'atuns) is almost precisely the one-fifth part of a cycle of a precession. In the Indian astrology, astrological eras were not measured, as in Western astrology, 1/12 of the precession cycle and were not associated with signs (like the era of Pisces, the era of Aquarius, etc.); instead the eras in 1/5 cycles of a precession were divided in the same way, as well as Tzolk'in, - into 20 parts on 13 and 13 parts on 20. Now the mankind has entered in the last K'atun of all era of creation which has begun on April 6, 1993.
   Reconstruction of the Mesoamerican astrology is still far from end. It is necessary to take into account that the original philosophical and physiophilosophical ideas and ideas of the world around with the Maya and other Indian people, perhaps, remained unknown for us in connection with almost elimination of all their spiritual heritage, especially written records, conquerors by Spaniards. In Mexico a number of the practicians using the systems in which as they believe, the clean and perfect form of astrology of Indians is reached works today. In many cases they reject work of the academic researchers and don't pay attention to stretches in correlation between the ancient pre-Columbian calendar and Christian chronology. However after a large number of researches and careful comparisons of documents of colonialists, oral traditions and ancient inscriptions, the consensus seems found in correlation Goodman-Martinez-Thompson who considers the beginning of this era of creation on August 11 3113 BC the correct correlation. B.Scofield specifies: "The tradition of the Mesoamerican astrology is represented to the thinnest and difficult from all based on time astrological systems of the world, and over time it can become great assistance in world-class astrological researches".


   At a turn of our era on the territory of Mesoamerica nomad tribes of Nahua get from the North. In their initial pantheon the hunting deities which are closely connected with a cult of heavenly bodies were of great importance. All Universe of Nahua was imagined consisting of 13 heaven and 9 underground worlds. Heaven differed as follows: the 1st - the sky of the Moon; the 2nd - of stars; the 3rd - of the Sun; the 4th - of planets of Venus; the 5th - of comets; the 6th - the black or green (night) sky; the 7th - blue (day); the 8th - the sky of storms; the 9th - the white sky; the 10th - the yellow sky; the 11th - the red sky; the 12th and 13th - Omeyokan, a dwelling of the deity hermaphrodite of Ometeotl. The Universe history, according to Nahua, has passed through the certain cycles or the periods replacing each other. Each of these cycles had the governor this or that deity and came to an end with world accident: fire, flood, earthquake, etc.


   In the II-X centuries AD in the southern part of Mexico and in the territory of present Guatemala, Honduras and Belize there was very high and extremely peculiar culture of Indians of the Maya. The civilization of the Maya represented network of city-states most of which has been destroyed at the end of the 9th century. In XV I century the culture of the Maya has been destroyed by the Spanish colonialists who, eradicating local religion, have burned practically all manuscripts containing both knowledge, and history of the people. When in the 19th century have begun to open ruins of the cities of the Maya, also the remains of enormous temples-observatories have been found. One of the best-known cities of the Maya founded in the 8th century, Chichen Itza (in the north of Yucatan) represented ruins already by the time of Spaniards. But the remains of his grandiose cult and astronomical constructions (including Caracol observatory) and now strike researchers.
   In only four manuscripts (so-called codes) found so far the Maya have found also the data on astronomical, cosmogonic and cosmological knowledge and representations of these people which are going back to different eras BC. Some confusion of the remained astronomical and astrological data can be explained with the fact that the escaped manuscripts are incomplete, and, above all, these are generally simplified rural priestly "reference books". A number of texts is found also on stone plates-steles.
   Ruins of a pyramid of the MayaTo an extreme antiquity there goes back worship of the Maya, Inca, Aztecs of the Sun and the Moon. Priests on the observatories-platforms which were located at flat tops grandiose tens meters high, step pyramids, conducted systematic tracking the sky, believing that all phenomena on Earth and in the state are defined by his laws.
   Special attention was paid to eclipses and movement of mobile heavenly bodies - planets to which the great influence on life and affairs of people and the state in general was attributed. The Maya priests on heavenly bodies predicted happy or unhappy days for these or those actions not for individuals, and for certain segments of the people or age groups of the population.
   As a result of systematic observations the Maya priests-astrologers with quite big accuracy have defined the synodic periods of all known planets. Special attention was paid to observations of "Big star" - Venus (mainly, in the astrological purposes). Besides Venus, especially strong influence on people, on representations of the Maya, was rendered by the Moon and the falling stars.The image of Venus in the Temple of the Jaguar (Chichen Itza)
   At the Maya the 20-system of the counting has been accepted that has affected also in structure of the calendar. Number 13 was another, besides 20, the main number in astronomy and astrology of the Maya. The area of the sky along which the Sun passed among the stars during the year, the Maya was divided into 13 sites-constellations ("Zodiac"): 1.-?, 2.-?, 3. Bat; 4. Frog; 5. Parrot; 6. Dragon with a trunk; 7. Owl; 8. Scorpion; 9. Turtle; 10. Rattlesnake; 11.-?, 12. Jaguar; 13. Monkey.
   The astronomical basis of the classical calendar of the Maya was difficult. First, it was solar tropical year (Haab'). It was formed from 18 months to 20 days (360 days) to which added 5 excess days without name for "change of the power of the main gods". Maya knew about a divergence of 365-day calendar year with true solar, for accounting of that introduced the system of inserts of additional days. This system gave length of year only 20 seconds smaller true (an error of our Gregorian calendar one and a half times more). According to V.I.Kozhanchikov's researches, in the calendar of the Maya also synodic periods of the movement of all five planets were considered. Mayan pyramid
   Besides, in the astrological purposes of the Maya used the "short year" from 260 days based on already mentioned key numbers 13 and 20. This 260-day cycle ("Tzolk'in") making unique feature of the Mesoamerican astrology was created by 200 BC. There are several explanations why such cycle has been allocated.
   First, the average period between conception and the birth of the person makes 266 days, and the Maya women connect Tzolk'in with the pregnancy period to this day. Secondly, there are at least four heavenly events connected with a 260-day cycle:
   1.the average interval of time between emergence of Venus as a morning or evening star makes 263 days;
   2. average synodic cycle time of Mars is equal to 780 days, i.e. exactly three "short years";
   3. the average period between two consecutive half of a season of eclipses in 173.5 days belongs to a Tzolk'in as 3:2;
   4. the heavenly rhythm making sense only in tropic latitudes is connected with periods during which the midday Sun is in the highest point in the north and in the south. These intervals change with latitude, however on the parallel 14.5° N that is close to position of the great Maya city Copán and the preclassical city Izapa, the year cycle is accurately subdivided by highway thus on 105- and 260-day periods.
   Mayan priest-astronomerTook mythical settlement date for the beginning of the chronology of the Maya - 5 041 738 BC. But they conducted the chronology (in the European counting) since 3113 BC. A considerable riddle is that the Maya chronologies entered the periods covering enormous periods into the system. The Maya had the whole hierarchy of the periods. Since 1 Kin (1 day) there were multiple 20 (the only exception) periods: Uinal = 1 Kin x 20; Tun = 1 Uinal x 18 = 360 Kin; K'atun = 20 Tun (apprx. 20 years); B'ak'tun = 20 K'atun; Piktun = 20 B'ak'tun... Alautun = 64 million years! The frequency rate 20 is broken once, for coordination of the counting with real solar year. For what these periods and as counted the Maya zero date of the chronology were entered, remains still unknown. This interest of the Mayan civilization to particularly large numbers and epochs brings them closer to the natural philosophers of Ancient India.
   Thus, Maya applied two calendar systems: the Long Count applied in civil life and short year from 260 days, the bound to astrology and religious practices. The Long Count was divided into two types. Year in 360 days (Tun) was applied to the special purposes, in life of the Maya used year in 365 days (Haab'), consisting of 18 months in 20 days. Five other days ("days without name") were located in the end of the year. They were considered as fatal. In short 260-day year (Tzolkin) there were 13 months in 20 days with weeks in 13 days. Days of the week were designated by numbers with 1 on 13. There was also 9-day week. Years united in cycles: 4-year-old (in it repeated the names of days and the number of months) and 52-year-old (a combination of Haab' and Tzolkin, 365 x 52 = 260 x 73 = 18 980).
   According to representations of the Maya, the Universe as well as at Nahua, consisted of 13 heaven and 9 underground worlds. The lower "sky of the Moon" (the goddess of the Moon) was followed "the sky of stars and god of Earth", then "the sky of the Sun and the goddess of water", and after it "the sky of Venus and god of the Sun". Even above "the sky of comets and the goddess of love" was located. The sixth sky - "the black sky of night and god of death", the seventh - "the blue sky of day and god of corn". Over him "sky of storms and god of a rain", and then "the white sky of god of winds", "the yellow sky Ah Puch" (i.e. god of death) and "the red sky of sacrifices". The penultimate sky has been given to god of grain, and the last, the thirteenth, communicated good luck in the form of the Owl and in some manuscripts is deciphered as belonging to volume, "who owns the sky". The group of gods of Oxlahuntiku, masters of heaven is often mentioned in Indian sources. These deities, patrons of 13-day week, were at enmity with other group of gods - lords of the underground world, Bolon Ti Ku. Often these groups were perceived as a unit. In the center of the Universe, according the Maya, there is a world tree penetrating all layers of heaven, and on his corners, i.e. parts of the world, - four others: red (East), white (North), black (West) and yellow (South). Chacs (gods of a rain), Pavahtuns (gods of wind) and Bacabs (carriers or holders of the sky) were associated with four parts of the world, they settled down on world trees and differed on the color connected with this or that part of the world. Each color trinity governed year.


   At the Aztecs who have come to the valley of Mexico City from the country North in the 13th century and acquired representations of the predecessors of Toltecs and also Sapotecs, Maya, Mixtecos and P'urhépecha, the main motives of mythology are eternal fight of two beginnings (light and gloom,sun and moisture, life and death, etc.), development of the Universe in certain stages or cycles, dependence of the person on will of the deities representing forces of nature, need constantly to feed gods with human blood without what they would die, the death of gods would mean the global accident. According to myths, the Universe has been created by Tezcatlipoca and Quetzalcoatl and has passed four stages (or eras) development. The first era ("Four a jaguar") in which Tezcatlipoca was the Supreme deity in an image of the Sun, has ended with destruction by Jaguars of the tribe of the giants inhabiting then the earth. In the second era ("Four wind") Quetzalcoatl became the Sun, and it has come to the end with hurricanes and transformation of people into monkeys. Tlalok became the third Sun, and his era ("Four a rain") has ended with the global fire. In the fourth era ("Four water") the goddess of waters Chalchiuhtlicue was the Sun; this period has come to the end with a flood during which people have turned into fishes. The modern, fifth era ("Four an earthquake") with the sun god Tonatiuh has to end with terrible cataclysms.
   Aztec image of the goddess of the MoonEach 52 years the Universe was exposed to danger to be destroyed therefore the termination of such cycle and the beginning new was followed by especially considerable ceremonies. According to myths, the Universe has been divided in the horizontal direction into four parts of the world and the center. God of fire Xiuhtecuhtli dominated over the center. The East was considered as the country of abundance and has been devoted to Tlaloc and god of clouds and stars Mixcoatl. God of sowing Xipe Totēc and Macuilxochitl were lords of the South, but it was regarded as the area is evil. The West had favorable value since served as the house of the planet of Venus, one of Quetzalcoatl embodiments. At last, the North was subject to god of death Mictlantecuhtli. Vertically the world was divided into 13 heaven (certain god lived in each of which) and into 9 underworlds. By the time of the Spanish gain in a pantheon of Aztecs there was a special group of gods of stars and planets: Tonatiuh, god of the Moon - Metztli, Mixcoatl, god of the planet Venus - Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli, star gods of the North - Centzon Mimixcoa, etc.
   Aztecs gave special attention to a planet Venus cult, connected by Quetzalcoatl. At the same time morning star and an evening star, Venus, was a symbol of life and death. Aztec astrologers have established that 8 year cycles of Venus correspond to 5 solar years. Each 65 solar years (i.e. 104 periods of Venus) 13-year and 5-year cycles coincide, and it gives special importance to a 65-year cycle.
   Bruce Scofield notes that astrology of Indians of Mesoamerica attached to time intervals the same significance what in the western astrology is attached to sites of space. The western Zodiac, aspects, houses - all this spatial elements. In the Mesoamerican system time intervals, with days as the main unit, had the same appointment.
   There are 20 key signature which move in the accurate sequence, operating time intervals lasting 1 or 13 days. 12 zodiac signs of the western astrology correspond to the Mesoamerican decans, a character set in signs. Like the Zodiac, 20 key signature of Indian astrology archetypic describe the evolutionary sequence. Heavenly events and the births of people were interpreted according to symbolism of intervals of time in which they have occurred.
   20 signs of the Mesoamerican astrology are united in five groups in 4 signs. An important role in assessment of the sign is played his communication with a certain part of the world:
1.  Crocodile 2.  Wind 3.  House 4.  Lizard
5.  Snake 6.  Death 7.  Deer 8.  Rabbit
9.  Water 10. Dog 11. Monkey 12. Grass
13.Reed 1.   Ocelot 2.  Eagle 3.  Vulture
4.  Movement 5.  Knife 6.  Rain 7.  Flower
   Each of these signs, called in the Aztecs "tonalli", manages one day in the order shown above (from left to right). In 20 days the cycle of such "daily signs" is repeated. Every day has also the number - from 1 to 13, this cycle goes along with 20-day (1 Crocodile, 2 - Wind... 13 - Reed, 1 - Ocelot... 7 - Flower, 8 - Crocodile, etc.). A sign with number 1 is considered to be the manager of the whole 13-day trip. 20 cycles of these thirteen numbers coinciding with 13 cycles of twenty daily signs form a 260-day calendar and astrological cycle which at the Maya was called "Tzolkin", and Aztecs - "tonalpohualli". Thus, in a 260-day cycle every day it is connected with the daily sign and at the same time enter the 13-day sign. Each of 20 groups in 13 days began with number 1 and a new name. Depending on the first day each group was favorable, adverse or neutral. Thus, in a cycle there were 260 various combinations. The numbers containing the seven and also 10 and more were considered as favorable, and the nine foretold misfortunes.
   The daily sign and the 13-day sign are fundamental concepts of Indian astrology and furnish the clue to a comprehension of the person and to the analysis of celestial events. In representation of Aztecs the sign of the birth of each of people predetermined all his destiny and also his way to other world. The role of astrologers was huge, nobody decided to undertake something important, beforehand without having conferred and without having got approvals of one of experts which at the same time carried out a role of scientists, psychologists and priests.
   I will give several examples. Given rise in the 1st day of the Ocelot more than others are subject to risk to be taken prisoner and die in the foreign land; in the 2nd day of the Rabbit - to indulge in alcoholism; the 4th day of the Dog promises to the newborn wealth. The East was a fertility symbol, and the North - on the contrary, infertility, the West connected with withering and death, the South had no distinctly expressed features.
Name of day Prediction for been born this day
Maya Aztec
Imix' (seeds or world tree) Crocodile The disgraceful, lewd sinner, the nastiest person, indecisive, doubting
Ik' (wind) Wind Very lewd, disgraceful person, his destiny is bad
Ak'b'al (darkness) Home The pathetic plebeian without the future, poor, the hunter
K'an (iguana) Lizard Jack of all trades, rich, wise
Chikchan (cloudy dragon) Snake Fiery soul, murderer, bad destiny
Kimi (death) Death Very bad destiny, murderer
Manik' (eating) Deer His claws are bloody, very bad
Lamat (shining star) Rabbit Importunate, drunkard, disgraceful talker, sower of contentions
Muluk (water) Water Out of fire his soul, his destiny is bad
Ok (dog) Dog Reckless, confused, sower of contentions, fornicator
Chuwen (master handicraftsman) Monkey Skillful carpenter and weaver, Jack of all trades, rich life, success in affairs, judiciousness
Eb' (fog) Grass Rich, his wealth - community, generous, not foolish, very good person
B'en (sprouts of a weed) Reed Pathetic, poor, plebeian
Ix (jaguar) Ocelot Brave jaguar, his mouth and claws are bloody, devourer of meat, murderer
Men (work) Eagle Jack of all trades, very good, will start talking soon
K'ib' (peck) Griffin Thief, character of the hunter, brave, also murderer, bad destiny, bad
Kab'an (earthquake) Movement Wise and reasonable dealer, actuator of blood and sorcerer, good, judicious
Etz'nab' (silicon knife) Knife Sorcerer and actuator of blood, healthy, brave
Kawak (bad weather) Rain Noble, very pensive
Ajaw (lord) Flower Rich, reasonable, brave, good

    Each 13 day's rest also has the astrological value defined on the first day of this period:
   Crocodile (1. Crocodile - 13. Reed). He has no conflict between love and work. The daredevil, but goes towards the aim with the cold head. Brings happiness to people around. The personal wellbeing is expensive to him. Radiates optimism and generosity. Touchingly cares for the partner, sometimes idolizing him. Women - attractive beings, are womanly, combine work and family life. Near them the man has a rest from daily occurrence. She is a hostess of the house, tend to work in collective, has many friends. People of this sign are all lucky men, are able to handle money.
   Ocelot (1. Ocelot - 13. Death). The hunter, for him isn't present the ban. He's resourceful, the nature has allocated him with many abilities with which another would reach much. He looks for only the happiness, pleasure, doesn't know a remorse. Doesn't love all duties both in love, and in work. These are free, carefree natures which always play with love. They are adored, they willingly test themselves in arts, is frequent with variable success. Accuracy and punctuality aren't their strength. Are able to slide, however, on life.
   Deer (1. Deer - 13. Rain). Horns don't threaten you. These people a rod on a wall intelligently as don't suffer obstacles. They are very proud. Behind their temperament shy nature, fear of break of happiness is. They are jealous, fall in love promptly and strong. Look for such type which will worship them. Are able to treat kindly the partner. They are happy in life. They always need the person ready to services.
   Flower (1. A flower - 13. Grass). These people - born art natures: musicians, writers, experts in the business. They have a cheerful nature, they are happy and happy even if there are no special reasons on that. Their levity is dangerous. Are sometimes arrogant and can offend, offend. Expose the merits which, however, obvious. If something doesn't work well at once, then recede. Therefore they either above or below, but not in the middle. Women are cheerful, like to dance, enjoy life. Like to dress and are able to wear clothes tastefully. The efficient and faithful wife, if finds the suitable partner. 
   Reed (1. Reed - 13. Snake). The sign connected with wind. People of this sign - quick-tempered, hot natures, are internally concerned, changeable and scattered. They can't to somewhere take root. Adventurers, openers, love travel. Large speakers, lawyers. Love big words, with them it is necessary to be circumspect because they are created to be trouble-makers and spies. The wealth doesn't pour on them, but they are able to float, sometimes for account of others. The heavy partner, though it can be pleasant.
   Death (1. Death - 13. Knife). Given rise under this sign - the minion of fortune. Abundant life. Spiritual and material riches, respect, honor, but are afraid of him. Though he is a hospitable person who likes suit junkets, but gives the favor and disgrace on mood. It is dangerous to have in him the enemy. Fidelity not his strong party. Friends aren't enough, he is whimsical, ambitious. Can derive benefit from misfortune. Has to care for the weak health.
   Rain (1. Rain - 13. Monkey). His days are under the influence of terrible goddesses - women who treat the person enviously. The person of this sign has to be resourceful to win the place in the sun. He is engaged in magic forces, magic, sorcery. Men are mischievous guys, tempers, look for only pleasures. Women - carefree, changeable, look for pleasures and find them. They are capable to commerce as they besides cunning have tremendous stability. Be afraid of their tongue, for it don't sympathize with them, but sometimes respect.
   Grass (1. Grass - 13. Lizard). Mistakenly consider themselves losers. Gentle, tender, but sometimes the attachment smother. The man - the reliable workman "with two right hands". The woman - knows many crafts, loves children and sacrifices herself for the sake of them. She tend to pessimism. My and your - these two concepts they don't divide. So, they like magpies collect those treasures that they do not belong to, to rejoice over them. Friction with neighbors and friends
   Snake (1. Snake - 13. Movement). Sign of good mothers. Knows how it is good to approach life from the easy party. Forgets often about a debt and a duty. She is favored by destiny; career - on going back to wellbeing. I am amazingly lazy, can fall; if it happens, then gets on the reliable place, and affairs will go better than former. Won't bring out of a condition of rest even debts, guilt. Appreciates gluttony, the company. She has many friends, everywhere to her are glad, she the merry fellow. In youth causes many cares, she is ill and disobedient. Woman-Snake is appreciated as the clever employee. As the wife she the reliable companion as mother is higher than others. Her childbirth easy, she and here lucky.
   Knife (1. Knife - 13. Dog). These are lucky with big abilities. The main properties - force and insight. Big physical force, working capacity. Like to work and eat. Can be the leading athletes. In love the feeling isn't strength, but they are strong and inventive, badly find approach to the partner. Are able to direct. The person of this sign - not means for mechanical draft. The combination of vitality with the mind. He is straightforward and simple. In the position he's incorruptible, his councils are valuable. Nerves as steel rope. He's sometimes pedantic, always sincere and decent, the minion of fortune who manages everything.
   Monkey (1. Monkey - 13. House). She's carefree, cheerful, thoughtless. If it is necessary to spend work for achievement of wealth, she won't aspire to him as she is afraid of regular work. Her dream in a profession: dancer, musician, singer. Hobby - a game, a dream. Loves coquetry, but it is impossible to take offense at her. Trusts itself in castles in the air which will break. Loves children as itself has a lot of children's carelessness. People of this sign are loved in society. They bring good mood, but in principle are predisposed to melancholy. Care for health much. But they shouldn't be afraid for it.
   Lizard (1. Lizard - 13. Vulture). She is the best partner. It is connected with the nature and is physically very dexterous. Hates divergence and immovability. Always in the fresh air, therefore she has a good health. These are gardeners, foresters, peasants, i.e. "grain-growers" - strong stand on the earth. Reliably, with call of duty executes the work. Even it is better, than it is required, easily transfers losses and defeats. In matrimony she is reliable, gives support. With her you in safety, she owns the nerves. At her everything goes well.
   Movement (1. Movement - 13. Water). The loving person, doesn't know boredom, is constantly active, he is overcome by the ideas and thoughts. He is vigorous. Not the really convenient partner in marriage. She is a beautiful, thoroughbred woman, hers sensual radiation without the rest destroys the world of the man. He is ruthless daredevil, knows the force. Everything that they undertake, turns soon into smoke. They are inconstant, changeable, but can understand position of the partner. Not at any cost, but are in own way true. After long search find to themselves the permanent partner.
   Dog (1. Dog - 13. Wind). His love demands the victim. Happiness falls unexpectedly. Doesn't wait for a miracle, he isn't necessary on a case and especially in love. Is able to fight for happiness, but does it not as the player, but as the toiler. He's able to do large things, to lead. Is created to be the director, the conductor. He has an intuition to essential, necessary. He is true and reliable if his life not to turn into hell. Almost ideal partner in matrimony, but "is married" strong the profession therefore can lose the partner. It isn't really easy to understand him. That to love him, it is necessary to sacrifice something that he, however, will generously and generous pay. What is given him comes back a hundredfold.
   House (1. House - 13. Eagle). In love the people of this sign is not home. By the nature the player. The tendency to pessimism, sometimes is on that the reason. Play passionately, at worst risk everything that have. Women are sociable, talkative, like to pour out heart, wait for new adventures. Love passionately and sacrifice in love everything. They need in the partner a firm hand which will lead the people born under this sign.
   Vulture (1. Vulture - 13. Rabbit). Love quiet life, are true. Long life is provided. Children at first are ill, but live long. Don't run behind happiness. They are judicious, born scientists. Out of love they make a problem. Want to possess the partner not only physically, but also his thoughts though don't love when to them climb in soul. They are very true, house, friendly, but reticent, economical, but happen generous.
   Water (1. Water - 13. Crocodile). Love surprises in matrimony. The goddess (water) is very changeable, she shows every moment a new face. People of this sign neither kind, nor angry, nor poor, nor rich. They often contradict with by itself. This is the hard partner, but brings pleasant surprises more often. It is easy to operate them, it is impossible to offend them openly. They are gentle and tender. Have to fight for happiness. Demand from them, especially much in young years, but then it is easier for them. They have the right to reap the fruits of the labor.
   Wind (1. Wind - 13. Ocelot). These people support the clear relations. Aren't really diplomatic. Appreciate an open, direct word. Where they are, created the clear relations, but they are reached in the tactless way. Everything is thought over, nature of the revolutionary. Are able to carry away, inspire, and sometimes to confuse. In love win at once. Want everything or nothing. From the partner wait for intensive participation. Spiritual it is more important than sex for them. Difficult, but generous person.
   Eagle (1. Eagle - 13. Deer). He is exacting in love. The single, contacts difficult are given, he is selfish, haughty. Surpasses many in mind very few people can be at its level. Attaches great value to the appearance, looks after himself. In love he is exacting and selective. Hardly goes for communication. The partner for him - decoration of his person. Is able to interpret everything in own favor. Does not potter with trifles. He is a gourmet. The catcher of happiness.
   Rabbit (1. Rabbit - 13. Flower). Are disinterested and self-sacrificing, born peasants and tutors. Think about others, often forgetting about themselves though the future is planned with the cold head and it is efficient. Love children. Give advice. In love - not the active partner, but conceding it is equal both the man, and the woman. They play a supporting part voluntarily. In work too in a shadow, do not love a limelight. Heavy minutes address art which means to them more, than money which they often refuse. They need realistically conceiving partner understanding them.

   North is associated with the god of the Sun. This are concern, nervousness, confusion, alarm, militant spirit, enthusiasm and unrestrained temperament.
   East is associated with the god of the wind. At Aztecs it symbolizes progress, inventions and opening, it is favorable for poets, scientists, but also and for lovers.
   South is associated with the god of stars. Not everything works well at once, but after all it is possible. During this period there are no storms, but there are attractions and recessions.
   West associated with the rain god. His years are fertile and plentiful. Given rise under its protection there corresponds success and health. He has a wealth and abundance.

  • 1, 3, 7 - very well, these numbers strong, i.e. eliminate all bad from horoscope.
  • 10, 11, 12, 13 - soften all bad omens and strengthen good.
  • 4, 5, 6 - worsen good, and even more worsen less good.
  • 2, 8, 9 - smooth everything that is in a horoscope. They weaken both good, and bad.

   While very most part of the compliances accepted in the Maya astrology is lost, data on astrology of Aztecs remained. Each of 20 signs was considered being under control of the special deity of an Aztec pantheon. Knowledge of Aztec gods and goddesses is decisive for understanding that these signs symbolize (the same as understanding of zodiac signs demands knowledge of planetary stewards).
   Aztecs had also solar calendar (Xiuhpōhualli) in which there were 365 days: 360 days made 18 months in 20 days, and five additional days were considered as unhappy. Every fourth year was leap. Every year by name the first day was called: year of Reed, year of the Knife, year of the House, year of the Rabbit. Year of Reed was always considered bringing misfortune. For example, the 1519th year when there was an invasion of Spaniards was it.
   Several books which remained after the Spanish gain hint that there was the whole complex of symbolical knowledge which was used by priests and astrologers. According to these books it is possible to predict eclipses and connections of planets and also to define signs in which they have to occur. Predictions of effects of various combinations can be prolonged in the future with a relevant mathematical accuracy.


   Д.Куталев Новая астрологическая энциклопедия
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   Scofield B., Cordova A. The Aztec Circle of Destiny. - Saint Paul, Minnesota: Llewellyn Publications, 1988
   Scofield B. Days-Signs: Native American Astrology from Mexico. - Amherst, Massachusetts: One Reed Publications, 1991
   Archaeoastronomy in Pre-Columbian America./ Edited by A.F.Aveni. - Austin; London: University of Texas Press, 1975
   Native American Astronomy. - London, 1977
   Аргуэльес Х. Фактор майя: Внетехнологический путь./ Пер. с англ. А.Шашкина. - Томск: Зодиак, 1994
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   Авени Э. Империи времени. Календари, часы и культуры./ Пер. с англ. Д.Пальца. - Киев: София, 1998
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